AN605 PDF Datasheet - Vishay

Part Number AN605
Description Power MOSFET
Manufacturers Vishay 
Logo Vishay Logo 
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AN605 datasheet, circuit
Vishay Siliconix
Power MOSFET Basics:
Understanding MOSFET Characteristics Associated
With The Figure of Merit
Jess Brown, Guy Moxey
Power MOSFETs have become the standard choice as the
main switching device for low-voltage (<200 V) switchmode
power-supply (SMPS) converter applications. However using
manufacturers’ datasheets to choose or size the correct
device for a specific circuit topology is becoming increasingly
difficult. The main criteria for MOSFET selection are the power
loss associated with the MOSFET (related to the overall
efficiency of the SMPS) and the power-dissipation capability
of the MOSFET (related to the maximum junction temperature
and thermal performance of the package). This application
note focuses on the basic characteristics and understanding
of the MOSFET.
There are several factors which affect the gate of the
MOSFET, and it is necessary to understand the fundamental
basis of the device structure before the MOSFET behavior can
be explained. This application note details the basic structure
of the Trench MOSFET structure, identifying the parasitic
components and defining related terminology. It also
describes how and why the parasitic parameters occur.
With a large variety of topologies, switching speeds, load
currents, and output voltages available, it has become
impossible to identify a generic MOSFET that offers the best
performance across the wide range of circuit conditions. In
some circumstances the on-resistance (rDS(on)) losses
dominate, and in others it is the switching losses of the
transient current and voltage waveforms, or the losses
associated with driving the gate of the device. It also has been
shown1,2 that the input and output capacitances can be the
dominant loss.
To add to this confusion, device manufacturers specify
MOSFET parameters at different static and dynamic
conditions, diminishing designers’ ability to compare like for
like. Therefore, the only true method of making the correct
MOSFET choice is to compare a selection of devices within
the circuit in which the MOSFET will be used.
There are methods available that, though sometimes difficult
to implement, enable the designer to compare MOSFETs that
appear suited for a given application. One method for
evaluating MOSFETs is according to “figure of merit.” In its
simplest form, the figure of merit compares gate charge (Qg)
against rDS(on). The result of this multiplication relates to a
certain device technology, which is effectively scalable to
Document Number: 71933
achieve the required rDS(on) or Qg . However, the lower the
rDS(on) the higher the gate charge will be. A similar method for
comparing devices is the “Baliga high-frequency figure of
merit,” BHFFOM1, which assumes that the dominant
switching loss will be associated with the charging and
discharging of the input capacitance (Ciss). A third method
uses the “new high-frequency figure of merit,” NHFFOM2,
which assumes that the dominant switching loss is due to the
charging and discharging of the output capacitance (Coss).
The latter two methods are geared towards the applications in
which the MOSFETs will be implemented. However, these
methods only allow like-for-like comparisons; they do not
enable the user to determine that a device with one figure of
merit is necessarily better than a different device with another.
Figure 1 shows the Qg x rDS(on) figure of merit for a sample of
Vishay Siliconix’s range of 30-V SO-8 n-channel MOSFETs.
The Si4888DY, for example, may be better in certain switching
applications than the Si4842DY, but it is not possible to use this
graph—or other graphs using more complex figures of
merit—to determine objectively the best device for a specific
Si4872 Si4874
15 20 25 30
Gate Charge (nC)
S Siliconix VGS = 4.5 V
FIGURE 1. Typical figure of merit for Vishay Siliconix n-channel,
1. IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 10, No. 10, October 1989, “Power
Semiconductor Device Figure of Merit for High Frequency applications,”
B. Jayant Baliga.
2. Proc. of 1995 Int. Sym. on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs,
Hokohama, “New Power Device Figure of Merit for High-Frequency
Applications,” IL-Jung Kim, Satoshi Mastumoto, Tatsuo Sakai, and
Toshiaka Yachi.
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AN605 pdf, schematic
Vishay Siliconix
Table 1 identifies the common definitions of the majority of the
MOSFET parameters and parasitics found in a Trench
Definitions of MOSFET Parameters
Rg Gate resistance internal to the MOSFET
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁCgs Capacitance due to the overlap of the source and channel
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁregions by the polysilicon gate. Independent of applied
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁCgd Consists of two parts:
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ1.. Associated with the overlap of the polysilicon gate and the
silicon underneath in the JFET region. Independent of
2.. The capacitance associated with the depletion region
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁimmediately under the gate. Non-linear function of
This provides a feedback loop between the output and
input circuit. It is called the Miller Capacitor because it
causes the total dynamic input capacitance to become
greater than the sum of the static capacitors.
Capacitance associated with the body drift diode. Varies
inversely with the square root of the drain source bias.
Voltage at which the reverse-biased body drift diode breaks
down and a significant current starts to flow between source
and drain by the avalanche multipication process, while the
gate and source are shorted together. This is normally
measured at 250-mA drain current.
On-state resistance for Trench. Equals
RSOURCE + RCH + RA + RD + Rsub + Rwcl
Source diffusion resistance
Channel resistance
Accumulation resistance
JFET component resistance
Drift-region resistance
Susbtrate resistance
Bond wire, contact and leadframe resistance (significant in
low-voltage devices)
Transconductance, a measure of the sensitivity of drain
voltage to changes in gate-source bias. Normally quoted for
a VGS that gives a drain current equal to 1/2 of maximum
current and for VDS that ensures operation in the
constant-current region.
Note: gfs is influenced by gate width, which increases in
proportion as cell density increases. Reduced channel length
is beneficial to both gfs and rDS(on).
Input capacitance. Equals Cgs + Cgd with Cds shorted.
Reverse transfer capacitance, Cgd
Output capacitance. Equals Cds + Cgd
Total gate charge. The amount of charge consumed by the
capacitance of gate
Gate source charge. The charge consumed by the gate
source capacitance.
Gate drain charge. The charge consumed by the gate drain
ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁThe foundations of any power MOSFET device can be derived
from the vertical planar DMOS technology. Currents
emanating from the source flow laterally along the surface,
then turn and flow in a perpendicular direction away from the
surface between adjacent body diffusions, through the
epitaxial drain, into the substrate, and out of the wafer
backside. The channel is formed under the polysilicon gate
layer along the planar surface. However, the planar structure
has an effective finite level of cell density because the JFET
pinch-off effect3 leads to an increased device on-resistance,
compared with the Trench structure, at very high cell
With such electrical and geometric restrictions, further
increases to planar DMOS cell density above 30 million
cells/inch2 are not only unwarranted, but also likely to be
detrimental to performance. Only by eliminating the pinching
effect can cell reductions significantly benefit MOSFET
To overcome the planar pinch-off problem, device designers
at Vishay Siliconix implemented the trench-gate vertical power
MOSFET, or TrenchFETr. Rather than conduct current along
the surface, the TrenchFET conducts via a channel formed
vertically along the sidewall of a trench etched into the silicon.
A Trench DMOS cross-section is shown in Figure 2. Using a
closed cell pattern similar to that of planar DMOS, the trench
forms a grid surrounding islands of silicon. Each silicon island
is the location of a double diffused channel region and its
associated source diffusion.
The trench is oxided, then filled with a conductor and
planarized to form the device gate.
With this trench technology, it is feasable to increase the cell
density without any JFET pinch-off effects, and as such, high
cell densities (>200 million cells/inch2) are achievable. It is
beneficial to have incremental steps up to this level of cell
density, thereby creating a family of devices balancing
ultra-low on-resistance, gate characteristics, and cost.
However, the increase in die per wafer, which improves cost
benefits, and reduction in rDS(on), which improves
performance, remain the two most compelling advantages.
Figure 3 shows a cross-section of the MOSFET Trench die at
a density of 178 million cells/inch2. This is a slice through the
actual ultra-high-density cell wafer in an area that
demonstrates the high-density cell scaling. To achieve such
a cell figure, the focus has been placed on both the lateral and
vertical cell scaling, optimizing not only the rDS(on) but also the
gate characteristics.
Along with advances in lateral scaling designed to increase
the cell density, there also have been improvements in the
associated capacitance, Figure 3b, to enhance fast switching,
which is essential for high-frequency operation (>400 kHz).
Also at light current loads, the gate drive losses become a
significant contributing factor to the overall system efficiency,
so the gate capacitances must be taken into consideration.
The vertical scaling improvements have achieved lower
capacitance, resulting in lower merit values of rDS(on) x Qg of
<100 (mW x nC).
3. “A Fivefold Increase in Cell Density Sets the New Milestone in TrenchFETR
Device Performance,” G. Moxey and M. Speed. PCIM, 2001.
Document Number: 71933
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